Access to cooling
Access to cooling services is an important development issue, with health, education, working condition, and other impacts. Demand for access to cooling is expected to increase as living standards and populations increase and as temperature and the frequency of heatwaves rise due to climate change.
CDM (Clean Development Mechanism)
A UNFCCC initiative that allows developing countries to earn and trade emissions reduction credits for projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
These ozone-depleting chemicals were widely used as refrigerants and in aerosols. Production has almost completely been phased out under the Montreal Protocol.
CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent)
This unit is used to measure the global warming impact of different greenhouse gases relative to carbon dioxide.
ECO (Efficiency Cooling Office)
ECO manages the Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program. It supports the program’s strategy, design, implementation, grantmaking, and operations, and it will coordinate the program’s communications activities.
EE (energy efficiency)
Use of less energy to provide the same outcome. It can be achieved in a range of ways.
Reduction of the energy needed to deliver cooling services. Energy use for cooling, primarily air-conditioning and refrigeration, is a fast-growing contributor to GHG emissions. Global air-conditioning stocks are projected to grow from 900 million today to 1.6 billion in 2030. Efficient cooling can be achieved through equipment (such as motor, inverter, and compressor) performance but also through refrigerant efficiency. The efficiency gains from equipment efficiency are generally larger than from refrigerant efficiency. Efficient cooling can also be achieved through thermal comfort solutions, such as improved building and urban design, and through behavior change. Rather than seek isolated efficiency gains, K-CEP will take a systems approach to energy efficiency, and it will focus on solutions with the greatest potential to reduce emissions.
Energy service companies
ExCom (Executive Committee of the Multilateral Fund)
The ExCom manages the fund and has equal representation from developed parties and developing parties.
These super greenhouse gases are used in air-conditioning, refrigerants, and foam insulation. They have very high global warming potential, up to 4,000 times higher than carbon dioxide. Absent reduction efforts, global HFC emissions could become equivalent to 19 percent of total CO2 emissions in 2050. High-performing alternatives that are far less damaging to the climate are available.
GCF (Green Climate Fund)
GEF (Global Environment Facility)
GHGs (greenhouse gases)
These gases trap heat in Earth’s atmosphere. Although they occur naturally, they also are produced in large quantities by human activities such as fossil fuel combustion, causing anthropogenic climate change.
GWP (global warming potential)
This measure indicates the global warming (or climate) impact of greenhouse gases compared with carbon dioxide (which is set at 1). Methane has a GWP some 30 times that of carbon dioxide. HFCs have GWPs hundreds or thousands of times that of carbon dioxide.
These chemicals are primarily used as refrigerants. They were a transition coolant during the phaseout of CFCs. Because they are also ozone-depleting substances, they are being phased down under the Montreal Protocol.
IEA (International Energy Agency)
K-CEP (Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program)
K-CEP was launched in March 2017 to significantly increase and accelerate realization of the climate and development benefits of the Montreal Protocol refrigerant transition by maximizing a simultaneous improvement in the energy efficiency of cooling. The program is a collaboration of 18 foundations and individuals that will use their resources to make advances in air-conditioning, refrigeration, and other cooling solutions.
The Kigali Amendment is an amendment to the Montreal Protocol. It was adopted by the 28th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on October 15, 2016, in Kigali, Rwanda. The amendment adds the super greenhouse gases hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) to the list of substances to be phased down under the protocol.
Kigali Progress Tracker
The Kigali Progress Tracker will track policy and market progress on cooling efficiency across the world.
KPIs (key performance indicators)
MEPS (minimum energy performance standards)
These standards covering devices such as air-conditioning units are often established as national policies aimed at increasing energy efficiency.
MLF (Multilateral Fund)
This fund for implementation of the Montreal Protocol was set up in 1991 to help developing countries meet their commitments under the Montreal Protocol. Contributions to date exceed $3.6 billion.
MLF IAs (Multilateral Fund implementing agencies)
Four implementing agencies carry out the work funded by the Multilateral Fund: the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), and the World Bank.
MOP (Meeting of the Parties)
The annual meeting of all parties to the Montreal Protocol.
MP (Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer)
An international treaty with the aim of reducing global production, use, and emissions of substances that contribute to the thinning and hole in the ozone layer in Earth’s atmosphere. These substances include chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and halon. The Montreal Protocol entered into force in 1989 and has been ratified by 197 countries. It success as an environmental treaty is evidenced by the ozone layer’s nascent signs of recovery.
MREL (monitoring, reporting, evaluation and learning)
NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions)
These national emissions reductions pledges have been published under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
NOUs (National Ozone Units)
These developing-country government departments are responsible for managing compliance with the Montreal Protocol.
ODA (Official Development Assistance)
Parties (Parties to the Montreal Protocol)
All 197 UN countries have ratified the treaty. They are divided into developing (Article 5) countries and developed (non-Article 5) countries.
Collaboration of 18 foundations and philanthropists to fund K-CEP.
RFP (request for proposals)
SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals)
This framework, adopted by the UN countries in 2015, determines global sustainable development aims up to 2030. It replaced the Millennium Development Goals, which ran from 2000 to 2015.
SE4All (Sustainable Energy for All)
SE4All is a UN initiative that aims to promote energy access, increase the share of renewables in the energy mix, and improve energy efficiency.
Cooling of homes and other buildings.
TAC (Technical Advisory Committee)
The TAC provides advice to K-CEP on strategy, grantmaking, and progress.
TEAP (Technical and Economic Assessment Panel)
The TEAP was established as the technology and economics advisory body to the Montreal Protocol Parties.
ToC (theory of change)
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)
UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)
UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change)
UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development)
WB (World Bank)
Group 1 and 2
Under the Kigali Amendment, Article 5 countries are divided into two groups according to their commitments to phase down hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) consumption. Group 1, the fast-moving developing countries, will freeze HFC consumption by 2024 and will plateau it at an 80 percent reduction of 2020–2022 consumption levels (baseline) by 2045. Group 2 will freeze HFC consumption by 2028 and will plateau it at an 85 percent reduction of the 2024–2026 baseline by 2047.
The Montreal Protocol defines these countries as developing countries. Currently, they total 147.